Cases

Acute Diarrhea in a 7-year-old female
Author: mara.tietzen
A 7 year old girl presents to the emergency department with acute onset of diarrhea, which was initially watery and is now bloody. She is also experiencing diffuse abdominal pain and nausea.
Approach to Shock Self-Assessment Questions
Author:
The following multiple-choice questions are designed to test learners' knowledge after listening to the podcast on an Approach to Shock. 
Brief Resolved Unexplained Events (BRUEs) Self-Assessment Questions
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The following multiple-choice questions are designed to test learner's knowledge after listening to the two-part podcast series on an approach to Brief Resolved Unexplained Events (BRUEs) Part 1 and Part 2.

Groin Pain in a 12-year-old male
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A 12 y/o male is brought to the ED with his mother because of an 8-day history of dull, intermittent, non-radiating pain in the left groin and occasional knee pain.

Viral Rashes in Infants and School Age Children
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The following questions are designed to test learners' knowledge after listening to the podcast on Viral Rashes in Children.

Sleep Disorders Self-Assessment Quiz
Author:
The following questions are designed to test learners' knowledge after listening to the podcast on Sleep Disorders.

Fever and fussiness in a 15-month-old male
Author:
A mother brings in her 15-month-old son Connor to the emergency department.  She says that he has had a fever for about a week and is concerned because it doesn't seem to be resolving.

Acute cough in a 12-month-old boy
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A 12-month-old boy presents to the Emergency Department with a 1-hour history of a dry cough, increased work of breathing, lethargy, and irritability. 

Inborn Errors of Metabolism Self-Assessment Quiz
Author:
The following multiple-choice questions are designed to test learner's knowledge after listening to the 3-part podcast series on Inborn Errors of Metabolism

Vomiting in a 6-week old male
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Mr. and Mrs. Flint bring in their 6-week old baby boy, Charlie, to the Emergency Department (ED) with a week-long history of post-prandial emesis.

Shortness of breath in a 10-year-old boy
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A 10-year-old boy presents to the emergency department with severe shortness of breath and wheezing. 

Vomiting in a 4-month-old boy
Author:
Mrs. X presents to your pediatric clinic with her 4-month-old son. She tells you that her son was a previously happy and healthy baby, whose only issues included the occasional “spit-up” episode. However, she has recently noticed that he has become more irritable and vomits after most of his feeds. 

Abusive Head Trauma Cases
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The following contains 2 cases related to head trauma suspicious for child abuse. Learning objectives include common red flags from history and physical for abusive head trauma, steps for workup and imaging, and physician responsibilities in cases of suspected child abuse.  

Acute Head Injury Cases
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The following is a series of 3 cases which deal with the acute management of head traumas in pediatric populations. 


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A 4-year-old boy is brought in by his mother presenting with an acute onset of dyspnea and pruritic rash. 

Pediatric Vital Signs Self-Assessment Cases
Author:
The following multiple-choice questions are designed to test learner's knowledge after listening to the podcast Approach to Pediatric Vital Signs

Apgar Scoring System Self-Assessment Cases
Author:
The following multiple choice questions are designed to test learner's knowledge after listening to the PedsCases podcast on the Apgar Scoring System.

Pediatric Anemia Self-Assessment Cases
Author:
The following multiple choice questions are designed to test learner's knowledge after listening to the two-part podcast series on Approach to Pediatric Anemia Part 1 and Part 2.

Sleepiness and fever in a neonate
Author:
A 10 day old infant presents to the emergency room with a history of decreased activity, decreased feeds, and a fever of 39.3 degrees celsius

Urinary tract infection in a 7 month old
Author:
A mother brings her 7-month old infant to the emergency room with 3 days of high fever that has persisted despite regular tylenol (acetaminophen).

Unresponsive 2 month old baby
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A  young mother has brought in her 2 and 1/2 month old baby boy because he “won’t wake up” and has been “shaking”. You quickly enter the room and find Latisha, a 17 year old first time mom and her son Jamal. Jamal is unresponsive.

School difficulties in a 7 year old female
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A 7 year old girl presents with school difficulties commencing a few months earlier.  

Acute diarrhea in an 8 month old female
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Annie, an 8-month-old girl brought in by her mother. Annie’s mother tells you that Annie has been passing loose, watery stools approximately every hour for the past two days.

Heart murmur in a 6 month old male
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This case will help you differentiate different clinical presentations of pediatric murmurs. 

Dehydration in an 18 month old male
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An 18 month old male presents with a 2 day history of emesis and diarrhea with minimal fluid intake.

Pallor in a 17 month old
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You are a third year medical student doing your emergency rotation when you meet 17-month-old Paul, presenting with pallor. Mom states his appetite is also poor and he is more irritable than usual.

Acute abdominal pain in a 14 year old female
Author:
 14-year-old girl with a two day history of abdominal pain. She also reports a fever of 38°C, nausea beginning eight hours after pain onset, and has not had a bowel movement in four days. 

Speech delay in a 2 year old male
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A 2 year old boy presents with speech delay as noted by his mother.

Respiratory distress in a 4 year old male
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A 4 year old male is noticeably distressed and presents with a 2 hour history of breathing difficulties.

Knee pain in a 6 year old male
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Kennedy, a previously well 6-year old boy is brought to your general pediatric clinic with left knee swelling and difficulty weight bearing. 

Chronic cough in an adolescent
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A boy is in in the general pediatrics clinic presenting with a history of chronic cough and recurrent pneumonias

Foreign body aspiration in an infant
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An 11 month old girl has a fever and cough for 6 days. Her clinical status suddently worsens with increased coughing after choking on a carrot. 

Projectile vomiting in a 4 week old baby
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A mother has brought in her four-week old baby boy for complaints of vomiting. She explains that over the past couple days, the child has been throwing up, and more recently the vomit nearly “hit the wall.” 

Jaundice in a 3 day old male
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Jason, an newborn boy, presents to the emergency room with marked jaundice

Fever, cough and shortness of breath in a 13 year old
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A previously healthy 13 year old male presents to the ER with fever, cough and shortness of breath.  

Cough and respiratory distress in a 14 month old boy
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A 14 month old boy presents with the history of sudden onset of cough and respiratory distress.  

Fever and cough in a 22 month old
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A 22 month old boy presents with fever and cough for 3 days.  

Breathing difficulty in a 12 year old boy
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Craig is a 12 year old boy who presents to you at the Emergency with worsening stridor, light-headedness, urticaria, pruritis and a numb sensation in his mouth.

Abdominal pain in a 4 month old female
Author:
A 4 month old girl presents with 2 day history of colicky abdominal pain, vomiting, abdominal distention, bloody stools, and increasing lethargy.

Abdominal pain in a 8 year old
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An 8 year old boy presents to the ER with a 2 day history of abdominal pain and distention. He has a complicated medical history including Schwachman Diamond Syndrome, a bone marrow transplant, and is on immunosuppressants (prednisone, tacrolimus).

Tender abdomen in an 18 month old
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18 month old boy presents with a 1 day of intermittent abdominal pain, vomiting, fever and a tender abdomen. He has a past history of duodenal atresia that was surgically corrected soon after birth.

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in a 15 year old female
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You are about to see Jessie, a 15 year old girl who has been followed by your preceptor for 4 years. Jessie was diagnosed with Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus at the age of 12 after presenting to the emergency room in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).

Weight loss in an adolescent female
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Your first appointment of the afternoon is with a 14 year old girl named Julie. Julie’s mother has made the appointment because she is concerned that Julie has lost a lot of weight over the last few months.

Contraception Questions from a 16 year-old female
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Today you are seeing Eva, a 16 year old girl whom you have been following for 4 years due to her asthma. Your appointment sheet does not state the reason for her visit today.

Peri-anal warts in a 3 year old male
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You are a third year medical student completing an elective in the child and adolescent protection centre. A three year old male named Johnny is referred to you by his family doctor for a sexual abuse examination. 

Poor weight gain in a 2 month old
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You are doing your pediatrics rotation at a children’s hospital. You are asked to see a two month old boy (Cody) who has just been admitted for poor weight gain. At two months, he weighs less than his birth weight.

Prolonged fever in an 11 month old male
Author:
Owen has a five-day history of fever. That's all! 

Runny nose, cough, and sore throat in a 2 year old girl
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Your preceptor asks you to see Hanna, a 28 month old female who been having a runny nose, coughing, and complaining of a sore throat. 

Fever and sore throat in a 3 year old male
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Your preceptor asks you to see Austin, a 3 year old male who has presented with a fever and sore throat.

Fever, cough, and stridor in a 4 year old girl
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Allison is a 4 year old girl who presents to you with a 5 day history of high fever, coughing, sneezing, and a runny nose. 

Generalized edema in an 18 month male
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Jeffrey, an 18-month-old child, presents to the emergency department with generalized edema. Two days ago, Jeffrey’s father started noticing swelling around his eyes.

Possible growth delay in a 15 year old male
Author: Kyle is 15 years old and has yet to notice pubertal changes. He has not noticed any hair in his armpits or any pubic hair. He has not noticed any change in the size of his testicles or his penis. His testes are descended.

Seizure in a 4 year old male
Author:
A 4 year old male is brought into the Emergency Department because he started seizing approximately 30 minutes 

Copious secretions in a neonate
Author:
You are a medical student on a NICU elective. You are paged to be present at the delivery of a fetus with polyhydramnios of unknown cause.

Rectal bleeding in an 8 year old male
Author:
Adam, an 8 year old male, is brought to see you by his mother with the complaint of abdominal pain, diarrhea and rectal bleeding.

Possible dysmorphic features in a 15 day old neonate
Author:
One of your patients is a 15 day old infant named Julie. On examination you notice that Julie has a flat facial profile, large tongue, slanted palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds and generalized hypotonia.

Maintenance fluid requirements in a 3 year old female
Author:
A 3 year old female requires maintenance fluid requirements following a tonsillectomy.

A "very happy" 12 month old male
Author: Anonymous (not verified)
This case is written by Juliana, a medical student from the University of Alberta. This case will take you through an examination of Nathan, a 12 month old happy baby. 

Painful arm in a 4 year old female
Author:
A mother brings her 4-year old daughter Sarah to the emergency department. She explains that at school the previous day, her daughter was reported to trip over a class-mate and fall.

Low grade fever and vomiting in a 6 year old girl
Author:
A six-year old girl is brought into the pediatric emergency room by her father. She has a had a 3 day history of low grade fever and vomiting.

Hypokalemia in a 13 year old female
Author:
A 13 year old girl presents in the Emergency Department with weakness and fainting.

Intoxication in a 13 year old female
Author:
A 13 year old girl has a fight with her mom and in protest, drinks about 125 mL of windshield washer fluid. She is in the emergency room, is stable and neurologically appropriate.